The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical
Bureau (SMG) has been established officially in 1952 and constitutes a Bureau
of Special Administrative Region of Macao. Before its establishment, the regular
meteorological observations have been started under the responsibility of
Portuguese Navy. Despite its unstable nature, the observations recorded since
As Macao is located in a global region affected by the typhoons frequently,
it is a great importance of this Bureau for the Macao population. Except
of its activities relating the weather analysis and forecast, the SMG has
been attributed on the study of the local climate as well as the accompaniment
of climate evolution in this region.
With the responsibility given for the SMG to plough in the area of seismology
and air quality monitoring, it enables the seismic stations and the air
quality monitoring network always available.
Apart from the limited dimensions of the Macao, the requests
from the users of various areas of human activities are gradually getting
numerous: aviation, fisheries, civil construction, sports, tourism, festivals,
COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE
The SMG depends on the Secretary for the Transportation and Public Works
hierarchically. Being installed in a building with 100 rooms distributed
in three floors and occupying more than 3,000 square meters of the total
area, it is situated on top of the hill in the eastern part of the Taipa
Island, just near the Macao International Airport.
To the west of the main building, you will find a tower of 40 meter height
where the Doppler Meteorological Radar is equipped. In the Headquarters,
there are three Divisions, four Centers and one Administration Department
carrying out their duties.
Instruments & Maintenance
Climate & Atmospheric Environment
Telecommunications & Processing
Except the Headquarters being located in the Taipa Island, there is a branch
in the Coloane Island and some installations in the Macao Peninsula too.
In the Macao International Airport, the Aeronautic Meteorological Center
is found operated, where the routine meteorological observations are proceeded
every hour, as well as the special observations during the adverse weather
situations, with the making of respective reports in the code form of METAR
At present, there is about 101 staff in SMG, in which more than
60 is in the area of meteorology and geophysics and the other roles being
executed essentially with the technical and administrative support.
- Network of Automatic Weather Stations
The SMG is running with a network of automatic weather stations, consisting
of ten stations located on the strategic points of Macao. Three of them
send the messages automatically in every 15 minutes in the code form of
SYNOP, to Guangzhou and Hong Kong through the Global Telecommunication System.
These three stations are part of the Pearl River Delta Real-time Automatic
Weather Monitoring Network, which transfers the data on real time basis,
as cooperation has been established among the Guangdong Regional Meteorological
Bureau as well as the Hong Kong Observatory.
- Air Quality Monitoring Network
In 1987, it started the implementation of the Air Quality Monitoring Project
which the SMG explored its collaboration with others Bureau's. Now, the
SMG runs an network of automatic air monitoring stations which allow measuring
the concentrations of the major pollutants which affect Macao.
- Seismological Monitoring
At the Coloane Island, a seismic station is installed and transmits via
radio, the data to the Headquarters where it can be amplified and recorded.
Recently, one new digital station has been purchased also.
- Environmental Radiation Monitoring Station
At the Headquarters, a station is being installed for monitoring
the environmental radiation which permits the measurement of gamma radiation.
The SMG takes part in the plan of Civil Protection named as
Tai Fong, which will be activated whenever Macao is affected severely by
the tropical storms or typhoons.
Till the middle of the decade of the 80's, the SMG is a small service,
without any great international obligations. Nevertheless, in 1987, the
SMG was invited together by the Guangdong Regional Meteorological Bureau
and also the Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, at the aim of participating actively
the Seminars on Hazardous Weather in the Pearl River Delta, which is held
annually by each service alternately. The objective of these seminars includes
the exchange of experiences relating the warnings of hazardous weather,
technical investigation and presentation, particularly on heavy rain, tropical
cyclones and cold spells.
In 1992, Macao has become the member of Typhoon Committee (formed in the
sponsorship of Economic & Social Commission for Asia & Pacific and
World Meteorological Organization - ESCAP/WMO), then the 27th Session of
the Commission was held two years later in the Territory. Macao has also
been admitted as a Territory Member of World Meteorological Organization
(WMO), at the beginning of 1996. Except its obligations to the WMO, Macao
has actively contributed to different programs of WMO and collaborated in
realization of the international gatherings under its sponsorship.
Macao, in 1996, through the SMG, has taken part in the group of founding
meteorological institutions of CRIA agency (Climate and Related Environmental
Issues). This agency gathers all the efforts of the Meteorological Services
or Institutions of Portugal, of the African Countries of Portuguese Official
Language and of Macao, at the aim of studying in the climate implications
in atmospheric environment.
The Territory of Macao, from 20 December 1999, became the People Republic
of China Special Administrative Region of Macao and the name of Macao Meteorologic
and Geophysic Services will renamed as Macao Meteorological and Geophysical
It was approved at the XIII Congress of World Meteorological Organization
that Macao will keep her status as Member known as "Macao, China".
It was also approved at the XXXII Session of Typhoon Committee that Macao
will keep her status as Member known as "Macao, China".