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INTRODUCTION

  • The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau (SMG) has been established officially in 1952 and constitutes a Bureau of Special Administrative Region of Macao. Before its establishment, the regular meteorological observations have been started under the responsibility of Portuguese Navy. Despite its unstable nature, the observations recorded since 1861.

    As Macao is located in a global region affected by the typhoons frequently, it is a great importance of this Bureau for the Macao population. Except of its activities relating the weather analysis and forecast, the SMG has been attributed on the study of the local climate as well as the accompaniment of climate evolution in this region.

    With the responsibility given for the SMG to plough in the area of seismology and air quality monitoring, it enables the seismic stations and the air quality monitoring network always available.

    Apart from the limited dimensions of the Macao, the requests from the users of various areas of human activities are gradually getting numerous: aviation, fisheries, civil construction, sports, tourism, festivals, etc..
     
     
     

    COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE
     

    The SMG depends on the Secretary for the Transportation and Public Works hierarchically. Being installed in a building with 100 rooms distributed in three floors and occupying more than 3,000 square meters of the total area, it is situated on top of the hill in the eastern part of the Taipa Island, just near the Macao International Airport.

    To the west of the main building, you will find a tower of 40 meter height where the Doppler Meteorological Radar is equipped. In the Headquarters, there are three Divisions, four Centers and one Administration Department carrying out their duties.

    - Divisions:

    Meteorology

    Computer

    Instruments & Maintenance
     
     

    - Centers:

    Meteorological Monitoring

    Seismological Monitoring

    Climate & Atmospheric Environment

    Telecommunications & Processing

    Except the Headquarters being located in the Taipa Island, there is a branch in the Coloane Island and some installations in the Macao Peninsula too.

    In the Macao International Airport, the Aeronautic Meteorological Center is found operated, where the routine meteorological observations are proceeded every hour, as well as the special observations during the adverse weather situations, with the making of respective reports in the code form of METAR and SPECI.

    At present, there is about 101 staff in SMG, in which more than 60 is in the area of meteorology and geophysics and the other roles being executed essentially with the technical and administrative support.
     
     
     

    Station Network
     

    - Network of Automatic Weather Stations

    The SMG is running with a network of automatic weather stations, consisting of ten stations located on the strategic points of Macao. Three of them send the messages automatically in every 15 minutes in the code form of SYNOP, to Guangzhou and Hong Kong through the Global Telecommunication System. These three stations are part of the Pearl River Delta Real-time Automatic Weather Monitoring Network, which transfers the data on real time basis, as cooperation has been established among the Guangdong Regional Meteorological Bureau as well as the Hong Kong Observatory.

    - Air Quality Monitoring Network

    In 1987, it started the implementation of the Air Quality Monitoring Project which the SMG explored its collaboration with others Bureau's. Now, the SMG runs an network of automatic air monitoring stations which allow measuring the concentrations of the major pollutants which affect Macao.

    - Seismological Monitoring

    At the Coloane Island, a seismic station is installed and transmits via radio, the data to the Headquarters where it can be amplified and recorded. Recently, one new digital station has been purchased also.

    - Environmental Radiation Monitoring Station

    At the Headquarters, a station is being installed for monitoring the environmental radiation which permits the measurement of gamma radiation.
     
     
     

    Civil Protection
     

    The SMG takes part in the plan of Civil Protection named as Tai Fong, which will be activated whenever Macao is affected severely by the tropical storms or typhoons.
     
     
     

    International Relationship
     

    Till the middle of the decade of the 80's, the SMG is a small service, without any great international obligations. Nevertheless, in 1987, the SMG was invited together by the Guangdong Regional Meteorological Bureau and also the Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, at the aim of participating actively the Seminars on Hazardous Weather in the Pearl River Delta, which is held annually by each service alternately. The objective of these seminars includes the exchange of experiences relating the warnings of hazardous weather, technical investigation and presentation, particularly on heavy rain, tropical cyclones and cold spells.

    In 1992, Macao has become the member of Typhoon Committee (formed in the sponsorship of Economic & Social Commission for Asia & Pacific and World Meteorological Organization - ESCAP/WMO), then the 27th Session of the Commission was held two years later in the Territory. Macao has also been admitted as a Territory Member of World Meteorological Organization (WMO), at the beginning of 1996. Except its obligations to the WMO, Macao has actively contributed to different programs of WMO and collaborated in realization of the international gatherings under its sponsorship.

    Macao, in 1996, through the SMG, has taken part in the group of founding meteorological institutions of CRIA agency (Climate and Related Environmental Issues). This agency gathers all the efforts of the Meteorological Services or Institutions of Portugal, of the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language and of Macao, at the aim of studying in the climate implications in atmospheric environment.

    The Territory of Macao, from 20 December 1999, became the People Republic of China Special Administrative Region of Macao and the name of Macao Meteorologic and Geophysic Services will renamed as Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau (SMG).

    It was approved at the XIII Congress of World Meteorological Organization that Macao will keep her status as Member known as "Macao, China".

    It was also approved at the XXXII Session of Typhoon Committee that Macao will keep her status as Member known as "Macao, China".